We love you, Warthogs and all

Did you know they are the only pigs able to live in areas without water for several months of the year?
No? How about that the warthog has poor vision (though better than most other African wild pigs), but its senses of smell and hearing are good?
Neither graceful nor beautiful, warthogs are nonetheless remarkable animals. Made famous by “Pumba” in the movie Lion King, there is something that is so endearing about these unassuming animals.

For such a well known creature of the African bush, what do we REALLY know about it?

So in ode to the Warthog, here are the facts:

FACT FILE:
Bemba Name: Mungilli
Scientific Name: Phacochoerus aethiopicus
Size: 30 inches at the shoulder
Weight: 120 to 250 pounds
Lifespan: 15 years
Habitat: Savanna
Diet: Grazer
Gestation: 175 days
Predators: Lions, leopards and us!

They are found in most of Africa and are common in Zambia. The population of warthog in Nsumbu National Park is currently very healthy as there are not many predators found here.
The reason they can survive without water for so long is that by being able to tolerate a higher-than-normal body temperature, the warthog is perhaps able to conserve moisture inside its body that might otherwise be used for cooling. (Camels and desert gazelles have developed a similar mechanism for survival in hot, arid environments.

Physical Characteristics
Males weigh 20 to 50 pounds more than females, but both are distinguished by disproportionately large heads and the warts-thick protective-pads that appear on both sides of the head. Two large pairs of warts occur below the eyes, and between the eyes and the tusks, and a very small pair is found near the jaw (usually just in males).
Hence the name!

The face is fairly flat and the snout elongated. Eyes set high on the head enables the warthog to keep a lookout for predators even when it lowers its head to feed on short grass. The warthog’s large tusks are unusual: The two upper ones emerge from the sides of the snout to form a semicircle; the lower tusks at the base of the uppers are worn to a sharp cutting edge.

Sparse bristles cover the warthog’s body, although longer bristles form a mane from the top of the head down the spine to the middle of the back. The skin is gray or black (or yellowish or reddish, if the warthog has been wallowing in mud). The long tail ends with a tuft of bristles. The warthog characteristically carries its tail upright when it runs, the tuft waving like a tiny flag. As the young run in single file, the tail position may serve as a signal to keep them all together. Warthogs trot with a springy gait but they are known to run surprisingly fast.

Habitat
Warthogs are found in moist and arid savannas. They avoid rainforest, deserts and high mountains.

Behaviour
When water is available, warthogs drink regularly and enjoy wallowing in muddy places. As part of their grooming they also take sand baths, rub against trees and termite mounds and let tick birds pick insects off their bodies.

Warthogs live in family groups of a female and her young. Sometimes another female will join the group. Males normally live by themselves, only joining the groups to mate. Warthogs engage in ritual fights in which they charge straight on, clashing heads when they meet. Fights between males can be violent and bloody.

Warthogs sleep and rest in holes, which at times they line with grass, perhaps to make them warmer. Although they can excavate, warthogs normally do not dig holes but use those dug by other animals, preferably aardvarks.

Diet
The warthog is mainly a grazer and has adapted an interesting practice of kneeling on its calloused, hairy, padded knees to eat short grass. Using its snout and tusks, it also digs for bulbs, tubers and roots during the dry season.

Caring for the Young
Before giving birth to a new litter, the female chases away the litter she has been raising and secludes herself. These juveniles may join up with another solitary female for a short time before they go on their own.

Female warthogs only have four teats, so litter sizes usually are confined to four young. Each piglet has its “own” teat and suckles exclusively from it. Even if one piglet dies, the others do not suckle from the available teat. Although the young are suckled for about 4 months, after 2 months they get most of their nourishment from grazing.

Predators
Lions and leopards are the warthog’s chief enemies. Warthogs protect themselves from predators by fleeing or sliding backwards into a hole, thus being in a position to use their formidable tusks in an attack.

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